Initial public offerings (IPOs), or new listings of companies on stock exchanges, are among the most important form of finance and generate considerable attention and excitement. They are used to raise capital or to monetize investments by the early generation of venture capital and other private investors. They are increasingly international in scope and reach, especially with non-American firms offering on American stock exchanges.This handbook provides a comprehensive overview of why companies list on stock exchanges, how IPOs are regulated, initially valued, and their performance in the short and long run. The first part examines the economics of IPOs, and offers statistics and regulatory insights from the United States and other countries around the world. The volume then covers mergers versus IPOs, as well as reverse mergers and special purpose acquisition companies. Part III analyzes institutional ties in IPOs, including analysts, investment banks, auditors, and venture capitalists. The fourth section provides international perspectives on IPOs. Part V discusses alternatives to IPOs, including private marketplaces and crowdfunding. Reflecting the range of disciplines that analyze IPOs, the contributors come from the fields of finance, international business and management, economics, and law.